Innovation of an agricultural system to harvest and sow simultaneously using TRIZ
Kobus Cilliers | On 09, Apr 2020
Jaime Cuauhtémoc Negrete
At present, in Mexico the food is not enough that its inhabitants demand and there are large sectors that do not have adequate access to them. Among other things, this situation contributes to the degradation of the living standards of the population in most of the country, due to the increase of the costs of food and the loss of the purchasing power of the people. By using the principles of the TRIZ methodology 1,6 and 25, was conclude the proposed system is to use the combine to plant, either a planter built into the combine or a planter pulled by the combine. Since the function of sweeping or carrying implements of the tractor can also be done by the combine, by eliminating the tractor it is obvious the saving of direct and indirect costs in the acquisition of a tractor, since the combine can also fulfill the functions of this. So why not harvest and direct seeding in one pass. This proposal must be materialized by integrating cad systems with the Triz methodology. In addition to analyzing the proper integration of the combine with the appropriate planter, and if this is not the case, appropriate planter should be designed in this regard, as well as experiments to verify the benefits of the proposed system.
Key words: agricultural mechanization, harvester combine design, Mexico, seeder.
At present, in Mexico the food is not enough that its inhabitants demand and there are large sectors that do not have adequate access to them. Among other things, this situation contributes to the degradation of the living standards of the population in most of the country, due to the increase of the costs of food and the loss of the purchasing power of the people.
The transfer of agricultural technology has been a process hampered for several reasons, due to which subsistence agriculture was dependent on animal traction and human power. Despite the introduction of tractors and harvesters that have been imported and in some cases assembled in the country, with a percentage of domestic components, their adoption has been exploited only in medium and large-sized agricultural enterprises by farmers engaged in commercial agriculture, neglecting smallholders. Mexico is a major exporter of tractors in the segment of medium power and a leader in the automotive industry, but the country has high levels of poverty with low productivity in agriculture. The country can become a leader in the manufacture of tractors in the segments of low power, harvesters and power tillers. Manufacturing industry of these goods should not be treated as a separate sector, as has happened to date, but should be integrated into the automotive industry. If low power tractors, tractor powered harvesters and power tillers are made available at affordable prices for small land holders, it can contribute immensely in agricultural growth in the country and would reduce rural poverty. Negrete(2015).
In the systems of agricultural production the crop is the last operation that is carried out in the field, being this carried out of form by-hand ,by hand-mechanical and mechanical ,en this last one self-propelled teams they are used for the gathering of grains (cereals and oleaginous), cotton, cane of sugar, etc. For the crop of grains (corn, sunflower, wheat, etc.), specially designed bolsters are coupled (corn, sunflower, stripper), while it stops cotton and cane of sugar, teams are used with characteristic specific. The combine harvester, or simply combine, is a machine that harvests grain crops. The name derives from the fact that it combines three separate operations, reaping, threshing, and winnowing, into a single process. Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, oats, rye, barley, corn (maize), soybeans and flax (linseed). Combine harvesters are one of the most economically important labor saving inventions, significantly reducing the fraction of the population that must be engaged in agriculture. Quick and Buchele (1978). This highlights the importance of the combine for the success of agriculture and complexity involved for both its operation and its design and development. Moraes (2002). In Mexico they have not made efforts to design and develop a national technology harvester , only exists the effort made by Shinichi Kondo for design rice harvester .Hernandez( 1993) ,others works are ; Perez (1999). Designing a system for a combine threshing of grain Stripper type driven by the tractor. Ochoa (2000) Design of a combing cylinder for a stripper type grain harvester, powered by tractor . other works have been directed towards the design of a bean harvester. Villaseñor (2000) ,Robles (1997) ,Corona (1994), Sosa (1999) , Enzástiga (1997).
The agricultural techniques used by the majority of the producers in the most productive states of the country, have a considerable deterioration in their profitability, with practices such as intensive farming that increase their costs considerably, which diminishes the sustainability of agriculture and local economies. The technification of the Mexican countryside, is insufficient for the demand of agricultural products in the current market. Therefore it is important to make use of new technologies in the sowing processes and the increase of yield per hectare cultivated, to face the food crisis. Making an adaptation of the agricultural mechanization, being located as a generator of technology, own to the demands of mechanization of the work processes of the different types of crops, reason why it becomes indispensable to apply equipment of minimum tillage, that allow to increase the production to lower costs, so that agriculture in the country has a new opportunity for economic growth.
Mexico in the segment of planters unlike the segments of tractors and combine harvesters, in which in the first only meet manufacturers and in the second it does not even exist in the country, has a national industry of manufacturing of planters strongly rooted in the country with its own technology. This situation was evidenced by not allowing the emergence of Argentine planters, as well as infrastructure to continue the research and development of new designs of seeders in the four agricultural institutions led by the Autonomuos Agrarian Antonio NarroUniversity. It must be invested in Precision Agriculture technology in seeders with intelligent metering so as not to be left behind this industry. If this condition is put into practice the economic outlook is very encouraging for this segment of the national agricultural machinery industry. Negrete (2017).
It is known that harvesting has become increasingly automated, improving productivity and reducing human intensive
labour. However, despite these efforts for automation, some areas still need improvement and new ideas. Although there are a few patents relating to this process, the results are not satisfactory, thus new patents are being applied and published from many different countries. Gomila (2001).
TRIZ is a novel structured methodology to solve problems based on science and technology that requires a high degree of creativity and inventiveness. It is a methodical way of solving problems of any technological area. Originally from Russia, TRIZ is the result of 50 years of research begun in 1946 by scientists led by G. Altshuller, and is based on the principles of inventiveness derived from the study of more than 1.5 million patents of different areas of technology. patents that represented solutions to difficult technological contradictions were used to define and classify the nature of inventive problems. The knowledge represented by these innovative patents was the basis of the development of a method to solve technological problems and to create inventions. As in other sciences as Physics and Mathematics, TRIZ comprises a group of regulations, algorithms and tools. With this methodology an can innovate in a systematic way through a process that begins with the identification of the problem, its categorization, its formulation and finally the use of the tools to develop solution concepts creates The founder of TRIZ wanted to help people solve difficult problems of inventiveness and began to look for a methodology that could achieve the following objectives:
- Let it be a systematic procedure defined step by step.
- To be able to guide an inventor through the solution space and direct it to areas that offer the solutions that are closest to the ideal.
- Provide an inventor with respectable and reliable results that do not depend on personal (psychological) factors or abilities
No-till agriculture differs from conventional farm practices by leaving the soil undisturbed after the harvest. In the spring, seed is planted directly in the un-disturbed field, and is protected by the duff from the previous crop. No-till agriculture is good because it keeps water and CO2 in the soil, reduces the amount of fertilizer needed, reduces the amount of fuel used to process the fields, reduces labor of farmers, and reduces wear and tear on the machinery. No-till farming is now done on almost 20% of U. S. farmland and may be even more in Canada. But, No-till requires specialized tools to plant the seeds, place the fertilizer, and condition the soil for germination and growth. A common device to perform combined seeding and fertilizer application is the air seeder. The principles of operation of the air seeder are quite simple: Seed and / or fertilizer are carried by air through tubes and dropped into an opening in the ground. In practice, the devices become quite complex. A frame, to be pulled by a tractor, has folding ‘wings’ to allow transport and storage. The frame has multiple tired wheels to carry its weight. Dimensions vary among models, but may be 30 to 50 feet wide. The frame may also carry one or more bins. The frame carries seed and fertilizer distribution tubing, and provides for the mounting of multiple soil openers and multiple specialized roller wheels to pack the soil after delivery.
Design of these agricultural tools is evolving rapidly. This would be a ‘fertile’ area for a technology evolution/TRIZ problem solving study-you can easily see the progression from point to line to area to volume tools, from simple mechanisms to highly flexible mechanisms, from muscle power to mechanical power to pneumatic/hydraulic systems. But, these are highly complex, extremely expensive systems that can be set up to do one thing very well, but may take a lot of time to reconfigure to do something else, such as using a different ratio of seed to fertilizer, or changing the separation of seed and fertilizer, etc. Changes in field conditions occur frequently, over short distance, and optimum seed/fertilizer relationships should change to match the field conditions for maximum harvest. Miller (2002).
Zhao Xinjun (2003) present a case study of successfully using TRIZ methodology and Robust Design to solve a longstanding design deficiency of plough. Using Su-Field analysis method and physical effects, engineers found a way to reduce the friction with magnetic field and came up with a low-cost solution using existing plough. Robust Design was used next to optimize the settings of the solution. The main part of plough is the share, it digs into the soil, separates the surface soil from the bed soil and then moldboard turns it upside down, but the share’s life is very short which is because the friction between the share and the soil. The resulting feature was put into production, and it greatly increased customer satisfaction, prolonged share’s life and fortunately after the new plough cultivated the crop yield could be increased.
Material and methods
For informational design the information was compiled from databases websites of domestic and foreign government agencies, patents, academic papers, journals, conferences, manufacturers, importers and distributors, scientific journals, thesis, newspaper articles, books, etc.
For conceptual systems design was followed in this project the TRIZ methodology ,when a project is initiated and developed, it is split into a sequence of events, in a chronological order to form a model each of these events can be divided into phases. Morphological matrix method is defined as the division of the problem in two or more dimensions, based on the required functions of the system to be designed, then the maximum number of alternatives to accomplish each of the functions are listed, which are organized in a matrix in which the various combinations can be analyzed
First, the problem was defined, which is that the system currently used to harvest and plant various types of crops is expensive, as it consumes high amounts of fossil fuels, and inadequate from the point of view of soil conservation, since it increases compaction too much. Secondly, the functions of the machines currently used for harvesting and sowing with zero tillage were analyzed. Triz is founded on forty principles. Gutierrez .(1999).
The following principles were used.
- Principle 1. Segmentation ;Divide an object into independent parts.
- Principle 6. Universality;Make a part or object perform multiple functions; eliminate the need for other parts.
- Principle 25. Self-service;Make an object serve itself by performing auxiliary helpful functions
The system currently used for harvesting and sowing with zero tillage makes use of three machines (harvester, tractor and direct sowing seeder) whose functions are;
- Harvester Automotive machine of wheels, chains, rubber bands or mixed, whose functions are; cutting and picking a crop, threshing and separating the grains from their ears or pods, separating the grains from the straw, cleaning the straw grains and residues, transporting and depositing the grains, simultaneously moving around the ground and giving support and traction to the elements that perform the other functions
- Tractor Automotive machine with wheels, chains, rubber bands or mixed, whose functions are drag, push, carry and drive any machine or implement intended for agricultural work and forestry. It can be provided with a removable loading platform
- No-till seed drill open furrow, cover furrow, dose and deposit seed, apply fertilizers and pesticides
The combination of functions is not new as it is already used in Tribine combines, and in straw balers pulled by the combine. Combining and baling system, combining and baling in one pass, combine harvester and a baler and Hillco Single Pass Round Bale System.
Combine harvesting and baling (which can be a two- or three-pass operation) into one operation, or pass? Until now, it was the necessity of stopping the harvesting process to produce a bale that would be completely counter productive to the costly combine’s inherent mission.. Through a four-year development process that partnered Hillco, John Deere, and University of Wisconsin talent, the Hillco Single Pass Round Bale (SPRB) System that resulted addresses those incompatibilities. Specifically a green-on-green solution, the SPRB System begins with a John Deere S-Series ProDrive Combine, a five-model series ranging from 295 to 543 horsepower. For the baling operation, a John Deere 569 standard round baler is used. The 569 produces round bales that are 5’ wide and up to 6’ tall. Positioned in-between the combine and baler is the SPRB System, with the spread, collect module attached to the combine hitch and the accumulator to the front of the baler. The entire system can be attached or detached in five minutes or less.
By using the principles of the TRIZ methodology 1,6 and 25, was conclude the proposed system is to use the combine to plant, either a planter built into the combine or a planter pulled by the combine. Since the function of sweeping or carrying implements of the tractor can also be done by the combine, by eliminating the tractor it is obvious the saving of direct and indirect costs in the acquisition of a tractor, since the combine can also fulfill the functions of this. besides alsoeliminate soil compaction. So why not harvest and direct seeding in one pass.
This proposal must be materialized by integrating cad systems with the triz methodology León-Rovira(2001). In addition to analyzing the proper integration of the combine with the appropriate planter, and if this is not the case, appropriate planter should be designed in this regard, as well as experiments to verify the benefits of the proposed system.
- Combining and baling system online in http://www.fwi.co.uk/machinery/video-combining-and-baling-a-one-stop-operation.htm combining and baling in one pass online in https://www.grainews.ca/2014/10/28/combining-and-baling-in-one-pass/ combine harvester and a baler in http://www.glenvarbaledirect.com.au/
- Corona C.J.; Trucios C.G.C.(1994) . Design and construction of a cutting member to rows bean. unpublished B.Sc.Thesis UACH. México In Spanish
- Fowler, G.2014. Hillco Single Pass Round Bale System Review Quality. Efficiency. Sustainability. All in one round bale http://www.tractor.com/features/hillco-single-pass-round-bale-system-review-1679.html
- Gutierrez V.A.1999. Use and modeling of Q.F.D. methods and TRIZ for the design in the area of Agricultural Machinery. . unpublished B.Sc.Thesis .Antonio Narro Agrarian Autonomous University.México. In Spanish
- Enzástiga J.(1997) . Recolector de frijol . unpublished B.Sc.Thesis UNAM. México . In Spanish
Gomila, J. M. V. Applying some TRIZ concepts to the problem of harvesting and selection of potatoes .Trizjournal | On 15, Oct 2001
- Hernandez A.L., Kondo Shinichi.(1993) Modernización de la tecnología de producción de arroz para los productores de pequeña escala en la zona central de México. Centro Investigacion Regional del Centro . Zacatepec, Mexico .Available in: http://www.cofupro.org.mx/cofupro/images/contenidoweb/indice/unidadmorelos/libros/arroz/arroz20.pdf In Spanish
- Miller, J. A. Comparing Results of Functional Modeling Methods for Agricultural Process and Implement Development Problems. Trizjournal | On 20, Jun 2002
- Negrete J,C.R.2017.Economic prospects and current situation of the planter manufacturing industry in Mexico. Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences. Volume 4 September 2017 Issue 3. www.kspjournals.org
- Negrete,J.C.R. 2016. Analysis of the park of mechanical harvesters,manufacturing and design in Mexico.Advance Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Science.Volume 3(1)March 2016.http://www.aravsjournal.com
- Negrete, C. J. 2015. Informational and Conceptual Design of a Peanut Tractor Driven Harvester for Mexican Agriculture. Poljoprivredna tehnika. 40(4): pp. 9-18.
- Ochoa B.J.G.(2000) . Design of a combing cylinder for a stripper type grain harvester, tractor powered . unpublished B.Sc.Thesis UACH. México. In Spanish
- Perez M.M. (1999). Design of a threshing system for a combine grain Stripper type driven by the tractor. unpublished B.Sc.Thesis UACH. México. In Spanish
- Quick, Graeme R.; Wesley F. Buchele (1978). The Grain Harvesters. St. Joseph: American Society of Agricultural Engineers. ISBN 0-916150-13-5.
- Robles C.J.F. (1997).Designing a bean harvester. unpublished B.Sc.Thesis UACH. México. In Spanish
- Sosa Cruz, J. (1999) . Designing a bean harvester.Revista Chapingo. Serie ingeniería agropecuaria, México, V2 N2 P87-92 In Spanish
- Tribine,( http://tribine.com)
- Villaseñor P. C. A. (2000) . Designing a bean harvester. unpublished M.Sc. Thesis .IPN.México In Spanish
- Moraes,M.L.B.; REIS, A. V. dos, Toescher C.F. Machado A. L. T. (2002) .Maquinas para Colheita e Processamento dos Graos.Pelotas,R.S.Brasil: Ed.Universitaria UFPEL. 149 p. In Portuguese
Zhao Xinjun .Develop New Kind Of Plough By Using TRIZ And Robust Design .Trizjournal . Jun 2003
- León-Rovira .N. A proposal to integrate TRIZ and CAD (Computer Aided TRIZ-based Design)trizjournal | On 13, Jul 2001
- 40 inventive principles examples in https://triz-journal.com/40-inventive-principles-examples/
Bio Jaime Cuauhtemoc Negrete
Specialist in agricultural mechanization and agricultural machines design, has proposed the implementation of public policies for development with specialization in the mechanization of the agricultural sector, sustainable rural development and institutional reform. He is currently an independent consultant dedicated to the strategic planning and advancement of the development and the sustainability of the mechanization of agriculture and livestock in Mexico. He is an Agronomist in Agricultural Machinery with honors from the Autónomous Agrarian Antonio Narro University. He is a specialist in Management and use of Agricultural Machines in the Faculty of Agronomy of UfPel in Brazil. He has graduated studies in Planning and Systems: and in Agricultural Engineering. He has participated as a speaker in various forums of Agricultural Mechanization in Mexico and other countries. He also has teaching experience. He has published 56 articles of dissemination, in indexed journals and pree review, in Spanish and English, and 59 books in Spanish, English, French, German and Italian. He is a reviewer in 49 international scientific journals and a member of the editorial board of 14. He is a promoter of agricultural mechatronics in Mexico, achieving the implementation of this branch of agricultural engineering as a profession in this country.
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