# The Seventy-Six Standard Solutions: How They Relate to the 40 Principles of Inventive Problem Solving

| On 20, May 1999

Ellen Domb, John Terninko, john@terninko.comJoe Miller, jam@mcs.netEllen MacGran, emacgran@aol.com

The “76 Standard Solutions” of TRIZ were compiled by G.S. Altshuller and his associates between 1975 and1985. They are grouped into 5 large categories as follows:

 1. Improving the system with no or little change 13 standard solutions 2. Improving the system by changing the system 23 standard solutions 3. System transitions 6 standard solutions 4. Detection and measurement 17 standard solutions 5. Strategies for simplification and improvement 17 standard solutions Total: 76 standard solutions

(References 1-5)

Careful examination of the lists in these references shows 86 items, although they have been traditionally called the “76 Standard Solutions.” For examples, standardsolution 1.1.8 has two distinctly different parts:

• 1.1.8.1: If an effect is required to be strong in certain areas and weak or non-existent in others, and the field to be used is strong, then a shielding substance should be used to protect the areas where no effect is desired.
• 1.1.8.2. If an effect is required to be strong in certain areas and weak or non-existent in others, and the field is weak, then a substance that reacts with the field to produce the effect should be used in the areas where the strong effect is needed.

In the table below, these are treated as separate “standard solutions.”Likewise, standard solution 5.1.1. has either eight or nine parts, depending on whichreference is used, and they are all treated separately in this table.

The 76 Standard Solutions are generally taught in conjunction with the Su-field models,since in many of the standard problems that are solved by the standard solutions aredefined in terms of their Su-field models.

Meanwhile, the 40 Principles for Inventive Problem Solving remain one of the mostpopular tools of TRIZ, partly because of their longevity (developed between the late‘40’s and 1972) and partly because of their availability in English (References.) Their popularity is enhanced by easy availability—they appear in commercialsoftware, textbooks, and through free distribution on the world wide Web (reference 1,2,6-10.)

Table 1 is a list of the 40 principles with the correlation to the 76 StandardSolutions. We invite readers to send letters to the editor or articles(editor@triz-journal.com) with examples of the actual use of either the 76 StandardSolutions or the 40 Principles on contemporary problems.

 Table 1. Mapping the 76 standard solutions onto the 40 inventive principles in TRIZ

Principle Standard solution

 1 Segmentation 5.1.2 2.2.2 2.2.4 Divide the element into smaller units Use particles instead of the whole object Divide the object into parts, then make it flexible by linking the parts 3.2.1 Transition to the micro-level 2 Take out 3 Local Quality 1.1.8.2 1.2.5 2.2.6 5.1.1.5 Protect certain regions from the full impact of an action Turn a magnetic field on or off according to the local need. Change from uniform structure to a structure that is specific to the situation Concentrate an additive in one location 4 Asymmetry 2.2.6 Change from uniform structure to a structure that is specific to the situation 5 Merging 1.1.2-1.1.5 3.1.4 Additive, temporary or permanent, internal or external, from the environment or from changing the environment Simplification of Bi- and Poly-systems 6 Universality 7 Nested Doll 8 Anti-weight 9 Preliminary anti-action 10 Preliminary action 11 Cushion in advance 1.1.8.1 Use a substance to protect a weaker substance from a potentially harmful occurrence. 12 Equipotentiality 13 Other way around 2.4.6 Introduce magnetic materials in the environment, instead of into the object 14 Spheroidality or use of curves 15 Dynamism 2.2.4. 2.4.8 Make the system flexible Use dynamic magnetic fields 16 Partial/excessive action 1.1.6 Control small quantities by applying and removing a surplus 5.1.4 Simulate the introduction of more than is acceptable 17 Another dimension 18 Mechanical Vibration 2.3.1. 2.4.10 4.3.2 Match the natural frequencies of the field with the substance Use vibration in conjunction with magnetic fields Measure changes in a system by means of changes in its resonant frequency. 19 Periodic action 2.2.5 2.4.10 Replace an uncontrolled field with a structured one. Use magnetic field resonance 20 Continuity of action 2.3.3. Do one operation during the downtime of another 21 Skipping (do fast) 22 Blessing in disguise 1.2.2 Eliminate harmful effects (also others in 1.2) 23 Feedback 5.4.1 2.4.8 Self-controlled changes Use dynamic magnetic fields 24 Intermediary 1.1.7 Use one object to make the actions of another possible. 2.4.9 Create structures by use of magnetic particles 2.4.5 Introduce a ferromagnetic additive, temporarily 1.1.2-1.1.5 5..1.1.6 Use a temporary additive, internal or external Introduce an additive temporarily 4.1.2 Measure a copy 25 Self-service 5.4.1 2.4.8 Self-controlled changes Use dynamic magnetic fields 26 Copying 4.1.2 5.1.1.7 Measure a copy Apply additives to a copy instead of the original 27 Cheap short life 28 Replace mechanical system with fields 2.2.1 2.4(all) 2..4.11 4.2 (all) 5.1.1.2 Replace or supplement a poorly controlled field with a more easily controlled field Use of ferromagnetism and ferromagnetic materials Use electric current instead of magnetic particles Create a field that can be detected or measured Use a field instead of a substance 29 Pneumatic/hydraulic 2.4.3 5.1.1.1 5.1.4 Use magnetic liquids Use “nothing” Use “nothing” to simulate structures 30 Flexible shell, films 2.2.6 Change from a uniform structure to a structure that is specific to the situation 31 Porous materials 2.2.3 2.2.6 2.4.4 Use porous or capillary materials Change a uniform structure to a non-uniform one Use capillary or porous structures in a magnetic material, or to contain magnetic fluid 32 Change color 4.1.3 Use detection instead of measurement 4.3.1 Measure the system by means of natural phenomena 33 Homogeneity 34 Discard/recover 5.1.3 The additive disappears after use 35 Change parameters 5.3.1 Phase change 1.1.2-1.1.5 Additive, temporary or permanent, internal or external, from the environment or changing the environment 2.4.12 Use rheological liquids 36 Use phase transition 5.3.2,4,5 Use the accompanying effects from phase changes 2.4.7 Use the physical effects of magnetic transitions 4.1.1 Control a system by means of a phase transition, instead of measuring temperature, pressure, magnetic field, etc. 4.3.1 Measure the system by means of natural phenomena 37 Use thermal expansion 4.1.1 4.3.1 Control a system by means of thermal expansion, instead of measuring temperature Measure expansion instead of temperature 38 Strong Oxidants 5.5 5.1.1.4 Getting needed ions, molecules, etc. Includes 5.51, 5.52, and 5.53 Use small amounts of very active additives 39 Inert Atmosphere 1.1.3 Additive, temporary or permanent, external 1.1.5 Change the environment of the system 40 Composite materials 5.1.1.1 Add “nothing”—foam, honeycomb, etc.

References:

1. The Tools of Classical TRIZ, Ideation International, Southfield MI USA, 1999. Available from “Products and Services” page of The TRIZ Journal.
2. Y.Salamatov. TRIZ: The Right Solution at the Right Time. Edited by V. Souchkov, translated by M. Strogaya and S. Yakovlev. Insytec, Netherlands. 1998. Available from “Products and Services” page of The TRIZ Journal.
3. “Golden Classics of TRIZ,” 1996, Ideation International, Inc., Southfield, MI, USA, 1999.
4. “Invention Machine Laboratory,” version 1.4, 1993. Invention Machine Corporation.
5. M. Gasanov, B. M. Gochman, A. P. Yefimochkin, S. M. Kokin, A. G. Sopelnyak, Birth of an Invention: A Strategy and Tactic For Solving Inventive Problems. Moscow: Interpraks, 1995. (In Russian) Chapter 6 and Appendix 9.
6. J.Terninko, A. Zussman, B. Zlotin, Step-by-Step TRIZ. Responsible Management, Nottingham, NH, USA. 1997.
7. H.Altov (Altshuller pseudonym). And Suddenly the Inventor Appeared Translated by Lev Shulyak. Technical Information Center, Worcester, MA, USA. 1994.
8. E.Domb. “Tutorial on Contradictions” http://www.triz-journal.com, July 1997. To download the matrix or the 40 principles, use the “archive” button on the home page, then select July, 1997.
9. Mazur, http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/~gmazur/triz/
10. G. Altshuller, 40 Principles. Translated by Lev Shulyak. Technical Information Center, Worcester, MA, USA. 1998